Table 2. Description of process and outcome indicators investigated in this study

Social learning conditions and processes (adapted from Webler et al. 1995, Schusler et al. 2003, Mostert et al. 2007)
Inclusiveness All relevant views are represented in the process.
Extended engagement The process provides opportunities for prolonged and frequent interaction.
Opportunities for information exchange The process allows participants to exchange knowledge and information.
Opportunities for dialog and interaction Participants should be able to engage in in-depth discussions and dialog.
Process control The process allows participants to define the collaboration agenda and procedures.
Open communication Participants openly share information and articulate and expose their views and interests.
Equal participation Communication and interaction are characterized by equal participation by all parties involved.
Social learning outcomes (adapted from Webler et al. 1995, Schusler et al. 2003, Röling. 2002, Mostert et al. 2007)
Relational change { Relationship building Participants establish new relationships and develop a sense of community.
Trust building Participants believe in the honesty and commitment of other group members.
Cognitive change { Knowledge and reflection Participants learn about and reflect on RBM, their understanding of the management problem at hand and that of other group members.
Agreement Developing common views Participants develop a shared understanding of the environmental situation.
The extent to which stakeholder groups developed a common view of the environmental situation at hand is used as an intermediate indicator for process outcomes.