Table 4. Shared list of recommendations to foster the improvement of the research–management interface in Doņana.

1. The transparent definition of shared management goals and functioning models of Doñana Nature Reserve’s (DNR) marsh/ wetland ecosystems.
2. The structuring of existing monitoring programs, based on established goals and functioning models, and seeking to optimize coordination among agencies.
3. The incorporation of social research and public participation into policy making and management plans.
4. The definition, within the new Management Plan of the Guadalquivir River Basin, of a specific sub-basin for the DNR wetlands and its tributaries. Such a definition would resolve the contradiction inherent to the declaration of most river branches flowing into or surrounding the DNR as highly modified watercourses (therefore free from the obligation of achieving a good ecological status).
5. The continuation and enhancement of the collaborative dynamics that emerged after the Los Frailes mining accident. These dynamics are broadly perceived as a social good, which should be promoted both politically and economically.
6. The improvement of mechanisms for information exchange and inter-agency goal definition among the Doñana Nature Reserve, the Doñana Biological Station and the Guadalquivir River Authority. Examples include the development of protocols, standards, joint committees, virtual workspaces, and corporate databases for mutual support and joint decision making.
7. The stepwise introduction of learning, novelty, and innovation into management, based on the transfer of knowledge generated in well-defined pilot projects and programs.