Table 3. Main institutional events characterizing CJ1.

1.Inherited, inter-scale institutional void between nobility elites and local administrations.
2.Establishment of the bases for the development of local and foreign trade, by enhancing, for example, navigation in the Guadalquivir River.
3.Diversification of, and increase in, the productivity of communal lands (e.g., establishment of pine tree plantations for the production of energy, construction material, and coal).
4.Allocation of exchange value, mainly to Guadalquivir River’s left bank marshlands (e.g., creation of farmland and related industry around municipal entities).
5.Provision to wealthy, middle-class private actors (r-strategists) of easy access to title deeds of indivisible properties (large estates) and smallholdings, favoring large investments of capital for land purchase and the establishment of a nascent middle class (economic policies for Liberal-State consolidation).
6.Settlement of the contemporary public debt of the Government Treasury (tax policies).
7.Implementation of new public infrastructure and innovative engineering technologies aimed at intensifying production and maximizing returns.
8.Spanish economy leaving behind a period of decline. All-time records of the GDP during the 1920s.