Table 4. Analysis of manifestations of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK) and science integration according to governance types

Dimensions of knowledge integration Means of integration between IEK and science Appearance of amalgams representing new, converged forms of IEK and science knowledge Means of managing the integrity of IEK Means of integration of IEK and science into environmental management
Governance type
Indigenous-governed collaborations Collaboration between IEK and science; distinction between the two blurred Amalgams emphasized, e.g., ethno-ecology, ethno-science; digital data-bases with both IEK and science Indigenous law and custom; exercise of traditional authority; tight contemporary governance structures specified Combination of western science and Indigenous knowledge tools, principles of application specified
Indigenous-driven co-governance Collaboration between IEK and science; joint projects as means of integration Amalgams utilized, e.g., maps that amalgamate painting of Indigenous knowledge with western scientific data Ditto Simultaneous application of both into environmental management; principles sometimes specified
Agency-driven co-governance “Validation” of IEK by science; separate documentation of IEK and science Jointly authored scientific papers; reports targeting both scientific and Indigenous audiences Protocols; agreements; respect for Indigenous law; informed consent Negotiated approaches; Indigenous emphasis on preventing cultural appropriation
Agency governance Separation of IEK and science; little or no documentation of IEK No amalgams identified Loose, not specified; e.g., involvement of elders in on-country knowledge transfer Management based on western science; IEK present but its utilization kept separate