Table 1. Description of case studies

Mexico Brazil
Caobas Naranjal
Yaxcabá Mazagão Oficinas Caboclas de Tapajós MAFLOPS
Communities sampled
Ejido of Caobas,
Quintana Roo
Ejido of Naranjal Poniente, Quintana Roo Select ejidos in the Yaxcabá municipality, Yucatán (interviews in ejido of Yaxcabá and with leaders of Cancobdzonot Tadzibechen, Popola, Yaxuná, Yokdzonot)
Foz de Mazagão Velho, Amapá Nova Vista and Nuquini, Pará Also interviewed leader of Surucuá PA Igarapé do Anta and PA Santo Antonio, Pará
(also interviewed leaders of PDS Igarapé do Anta and PA Santa Rita)
Number of interviewees (community members and external experts)
22 16 15 18 19 32
Communal or individual property ownership/use
Communal ownership (ejido) Communal
ownership (ejido)
Smallholder use (resource use permission on government land)
Communal use
(extractive reserve set aside for communities)
Smallholder ownership (colonists in government-sponsored settlement projects)
Management model
Community-managed timber enterprise, divided in work groups; community sawmill Community- managed timber enterprise; community sawmill Individual traditional forest management (no timber commercialization) Individual traditional forest management with illegal timber commercialization; Small-scale, family-run sawmills within community Cooperative- managed small-scale wood extraction for furniture-making workshop Colonist association partnerships with logging company (MAFLOPS), management on individual colonists’ lands
Introduced forest initiative? (external agent introducing initiative)
Yes (government-run pilot program in 1980s) Yes (government-run pilot program in 1980s)
No No Yes (US and Brazilian NGOs) Yes (local company)