Table 1. Instruments and recommendations for making PES pro-poor and pro-adaptation

Instruments and recommendations PES phase
Identification of synergies and trade-offs between PES and adaptation Participatory vulnerability assessment to identify adaptive capacity, adaptation strategies, and dependence on ecosystem services of PES actors Scoping/Monitoring
Ecological and climate impact modeling to identify vulnerability of the natural system toward climate variability and change and trade-offs between enhancing different ES for different purposes
Maximizing synergies and minimizing trade-offs Choice experiments to assess whether payments can be made to finance adaptation measures rather than being made in cash Scoping/Implementation
Assess how far these can be made at the community level Scoping/Implementation
Exploit possibility of targeting payments to ES providers during vulnerable periods within a year Scoping/Implementation
Use institutional structures set up during a PES to increase awareness about climate variability and change and appropriate adaptation measures Scoping/Implementation
Make sure these are also accessible to non-PES participants to avoid erosion of social capital Implementation
In cases where measures introduced under the PES are likely to increase vulnerability to climate variability and change, ensure that counteracting mechanisms are put in place (e.g., providing an alternative source of fodder where access to grazing land is restricted) Implementation
Ensure that payments made to ES providers are higher than opportunity costs Implementation/Monitoring