Fig. 3. The SAF Virtual System domain with major Components and Interactions.

Fig. 3

The three Ecological-Social-Economic (ESE) components all have differing dynamics and function, types of information, and spatial-temporal scales. All three need to be simulated as interacting components. The Policy Control is the fourth component; the function of which is not simulated, per se, but the simulated output of the integrated ESE components becomes the information input for Policy. The external inputs to the Virtual System are those inputs from, or external to, the CZS that do not have strong feedback loops with the internal dynamics. However, the inputs that derive from Human Activities internal to the policy domain of the CZS constitute an internal feedback loop through Policy.