Table 1. System characteristics, adaptive cycles, and regime change in Charleston, South Carolina.

Regime 1: Old South Collapse Regime 2: New South
Time Period 1670 – 1781 1782 – 1860 1861 – 1900 1901 – 1989 1990 – present
Characteristic Colony Plantation system Civil War and Reconstruction Growth and preservation Post-Hugo expansion
Start phase α to r to K r to K Ω to α r to K r to K
- Institutional Colonial Slavery Federal Local Regional
- Economic Emergence of plantation system Staple crops: cotton rice, indigo Plantation decline, end of slave labor Military bases, container port Manufacturing, container port
- Demographic Population growth Social stratification Racial conflict Spatial expansion Coastal density
Function Trade / commerce Trade / commerce Rebuild economy, infrastructure Military support, trade, tourism Tourism, trade, expansion
Feedbacks Colonial tensions, growing wealth Economic rigidity, abolitionists Social upheaval, new laws Federal spending, population growth Hugo insurance $, development
Disturbance Revolution Secession War, Earthquake Hugo Sea level rise
End phase Ω to α Ω Ω to α Ω to α Ω