Fig. 1. Schematic diagram indicating the different ecosystem states and transitions in the New Forest.
Note that narrow arrows indicate successional changes, broad arrows indicate transitions induced by different forms of disturbance, which may be anthropogenic in origin. Some management interventions aimed at habitat restoration are not illustrated here; for example mire communities can potentially be restored by reducing drainage, and heathland communities can be restored by removal of conifer plantations. Mire represents bog or marshland, whereas scrub is dominated by shrub vegetation, and heathland is characterized by woody ericaceous plants.