Table 1. Crises and farmers' strategic adaptations in the Sahel, after Mortimer and Adams (2001).

Perception of ‘crisis’ Strategic adaptations by farmers
Drought Negotiating the rain
- Adapting timing and quantity of labor to rainfall pattern.
Food Managing biodiversity
– Maintain stocks of locally adapted edible plant varieties.
Stocking Integrating animals
– Sustain livestock herds as self-reproducing assets that integrate natural variability.
Environmental degradation Work land harder
– Mobilize labor to work with livestock to intensify production.
Coping Diversifying livelihoods
– Diversify ownership (livestock) and income-generating activities.