Fig. 2. In this causal-loop diagram, the blocks of text represent system variables and the arrows represent causal links. Each arrow has been assigned a ‘polarity’ indicated by a plus (+) or minus (-) sign. The encircled R indicates that this is a reinforcing feedback loop that can cause runaway behavior. The diagram illustrates an example of ‘policy resistance’, an archetypical feedback structure where the system pushes back against policy pressures.
Fig. 2