Table 1. Contrast between steady-state management and resilience-based ecosystems management.

Steady–State paradigm Resilience–based paradigm
Manage benchmark state: pristine condition Manage pathways of transformation or change
Manage for keystone species or habitat with humans excluded explicitly Manage for coupled social-ecological outcomes with humans included explicitly
Manage to reduce system variability and forestall disturbance Manage to cultivate system diversity and variability
Manage to optimize for single invariable outcome, with single equilibrium or steady state Manage for a dynamic changing quantity, sustain persistence, and transformation, with alternative stable states
Manage for maximum sustained yield Management anticipates a range of possible options to cope with internal or external perturbations and feedbacks
Management actions that delay Release (frontloop) Management actions that nurture Renewal (backloop)
Implement landscape level management, including wetlands, forests, and lowland urban areas to reduce eutrophication from nutrient run-off and urban effluence Maintaining structural diversity by protecting of critical habitats such as wetlands and rocky habitats, which serve as refugia and sites for breeding
Develop general ecosystems model of Lake Victoria that includes the physical, chemical, biological, and anthropogenic factors to understand and predict lake productivity. Apply appropriate levels of fishing efforts on selected size classes, such as the slot size described above, and target species will contribute to maintenance and, potentially, enhancement of biodiversity.
Quantify interactions among food-web structures, water quality, and life-history characteristics of fishes to understand the relationship between productivity of haplochromine cichlids, Nile perch predation and the causes of eutrophication, and anoxia in Lake Victoria. Identify and reduce anthropogenic nutrient inputs through reforestation of upland catchment areas as well as reduction of materials and contaminants in run-off.