Table 1. Description and classification of conflicts.

External to the community forest Internal to the community forest
Actor Type of conflict Actor Type of conflict
1- Logging operator 1-1 zoning overlap with a concession 5- Management institution 5-1 Mismanagement of logging benefits
  1-2 overlay with SSV†   5-2 Lack of human or/and technical capacities
  1-3 no agreement / no respect of the agreement by the logger  
2- Neighboring villages 2-1 Community forest delimitation disagreement with neighboring villages 6- Stratified social groups (by age, wealth, gender) 6-1 Struggle for control of management decisions
 6-2 Selling of illegal local timber
3- ICA-NGO‡ 3-1 Intervention of ICA-NGO criticized by the community  
4- Forestry administration 4-1 Need to ‘motivate’ government officials (bribes)

† Sales of Standing Volume: small permits of a maximum of 2000 ha of forest, where all timber can be removed without the need of a sustainable management plan.
‡ International Cooperation Agency-Non Governmental Organization