Table 1. Overview of ecological goods and services provided within watersheds (Parkes et al. (2008) after the matrix presented by Moberg and Folke (1999) for coral reefs).

Goods Ecological Services
Renewable Resources Non-renewable Resources Physical Structure Services Biotic Services within Ecosystems Biotic Services between Ecosystems Biogeochemical Services Informational Services Social and Cultural Services
Agricultural and forestry products

Municipal and industrial water and other resources


Freshwater fishery resources

Ecological flows of water

Groundwater and rainwater

Hydroelectric power

Fertile soil

Nearshore marine resources

Ornamental resources
Ore including aggregate

Soil generation

Oil and gas
Shoreline / riverbank creation and erosion

Land drainage

Moderate weather extremes
Maintenance of habitats

Maintenance of biodiversity and a genetic library

Regulation of ecosystem processes and functions

Biological maintenance of resilience
Biological support through links to ecozones and biomes / Maintenance of large-scale habitats

Export of organic production to other areas’ food webs

Biological control / Regulation of pathogens
Nutrient cycling

Primary production

CO2 regulation / carbon cycling

Oxygen production

Waste assimilation

Detoxification of wastes

Water purification
Monitoring and pollution record

Climate record
Mitigate drought, floods, landslides

Support recreation and ecotourism

Aesthetic values and artistic inspiration

Sustaining the livelihood of communities / urban areas

Support of cultural, religious, and spiritual values