Fig. 2. Major interactions and feedbacks between the ecological and social systems.

Fig. 2

Note: The outer circles show longer-term impacts of increased water use in agriculture on ecosystems and agriculture and thus losses of resilience. The bold variables in the inner circles on the right hand side are management measures introduced as a response to environmental degradation and subsequent loss of agricultural productivity. The red arrows indicate the feedbacks created by the expansion of irrigated area and the low standard of water management. A minus sign indicates a negative feedback (e.g. a decrease in agricultural production leads to an increase in irrigated area), whereas a plus sign indicates a positive feedback (e.g. an increase in irrigated area leads to an increase in water use in agriculture).