Table 1. Criteria and indicators from studies that examined a single sustainable forest management certification system and which were excluded from comparative analysis (see Methods for details). Variables used to measure indicators or criteria are omitted.

Source Certifier assessed Criteria Indicators
Hickey and Innes (2008) Literature review Biological diversity Ecosystem diversity
Species diversity
Genetic diversity
Ecosystem condition and productivity
Soil and water
Role in global ecological cycles Carbon cycle
Economic and social benefits Economic benefits
Distribution of benefits
Sustainability of benefits
Society's responsibility Provision for duly established Aboriginal and treaty rights
Aboriginal traditional land use and forest-based ecological knowledge
Forest community well-being and resilience
Fair and effective decision making
Informed decision making
Ebeling and Yasue (2009) FSC† Success of certification Certified forest area (absolute number and share of total forest cover)
Number of forest management and Chain-of-Custody certificates
Size of eco-sensitive markets Share of country’s export market
Government support for certification
Nongovernmental organization and official development assistance agency support for certification
Forest legislation and policy High compatibility of forestry laws with FSC certification
High predictability of future forest legislations and policy
Quality of law enforcement Corruption levels
Secure funding for enforcing agencies
Number of monitoring staff
Security of land tenure Clear land titles or usage rights
Prevalence of squatting
Industry structure
Information availability
Kant and Brubacher (2008) FSC, CSA-SFM‡ Aboriginal and treaty rights Recognize and implement Aboriginal and treaty rights
(but no comparison) Identify and map areas of importance to Aboriginal people
Ensure that Aboriginal people have access to areas of importance to them
Protect areas of importance to Aboriginal people
Participatory decision making Meaningful involvement of First Nations
Regular reports by Minister of Natural Resources and industry to First Nations
Incorporate Aboriginal knowledge into forest management planning and operations
Environmental values and sustainable forest management Tree planting and other regeneration and management practices
Manage forests to ensure that forest products are available for Aboriginal people
Protection of wildlife and their habitat
Protect water, wetlands, and watersheds
Economic opportunities and development Partnerships between industry, government, and First Nations
Increased involvement by Aboriginal loggers
Government support for a profitable, commercial forest products industry that can support local opportunities
Education, training, and capacity-building programs
Sharing of the revenues from treaty forest lands
Eden (2008) FSC Amounts of old-growth, ancient woodland, and veteran trees
Amount of deadwood
Dingwerth (2008) FSC Participation of southern hemisphere representatives
Cerutti et al. (2008) FSC Minimum cutting diameter
Inconsistencies in legal frameworks
Newsom et al. (2006) FSC Forest management activities
Forest ecology
Social and economic impacts
Systems elements
Brown and Zhang (2005) SFI§ Stumpage rates
Costs of implementation
Azevedo et al. (2005) SFI Habitat suitability index for Dendroica pinus (pine warbler)
Water runoff and sediment load
Azevedo et al. (2005) SFI Water runoff and sediment load
Subak (2002) FSC Carbon sequestration  
†FSC: Forest Stewardship Council
‡CSA-SFM: Canadian Standards Association Sustainable Forestry Management Standard
§SFI: Sustainable Forestry Initiative