Table 3. Strategic objectives and main management actions proposed for the Doņana social-ecological system, regarding the four aspects tackled through the backcasting approach.

Aspect Strategic objective Main actions proposed
Water Promote integrated river basin management • Water shall be the core of management, conceptualizing the Doñana social-ecological system inside of its watershed
• It is essential to encourage education to raise awareness of local education regarding sustainable water use
• Water-conserving technologies and initiatives, and nonirrigated crops, shall be supported
• Re-naturalization and laws regarding water shall be enforced
Biodiversity conservation Achieve a general agreement for biodiversity, including the different interests • Education, participation, investigation, and communication shall be encouraged
• Measures of sustainability for all aspects that affect biodiversity, especially water, shall be adopted
Agriculture Achieve sustainable agriculture • Local markets and quality labels shall be fostered, to reduce the number of intermediaries
• Training of professionals, encouragement of non-irrigated crops as well as ecological agriculture, and the implementation of new agro-environmental measures are needed
Tourism and mobility Create a plan of mobility, and promote quality and nature tourism • A general management plan for public transport shall be adopted
• Tourism encouragement, professional’s training, quality, and improvement of infrastructures shall be the main factors promoting tourism and mobility guidelines