Fig. 5. The interdisciplinary conceptual model of the contemporary starting point (2003) for restoring instream and riparian structure and function in the UHRRI reach. The model emphasizes (i) the key drivers of disturbance in the system that can be tackled by river managers (heavy rectangles), (ii) the specific mechanisms by which these drivers stress the system (ovals), (iii) the direct and indirect interactions of stressors with each other and with system components (light rectangles), and (iv) the ecological attributes affected by these stressors (heavy hexagons).