Table 3. Livelihood strategies associated with household cluster groups, and the principal activities determining each strategy for Khawa and Kedia in 2004 and 2005. Principal activities were identified using principal components analysis. Differentiation of livelihood activities between cluster groups was more significant (clear cut) in Kedia than in Khawa, with a greater proportion of the cumulative percentage of total variance explained in Kedia than in Khawa at each level of analysis.

Settlement Khawa Kedia
Household cluster group Accumulator Diversifier Dependent Accumulator Diversifier Dependent
Livelihood strategy Diversified strategy with tendency to specialize Diversified strategy with tendency for dependency Dependency
Dependency strategy
Principal livelihood activities differentiating clusters (in order of significance) Livestock specialization often accompanied with permanent employment and/or commercial business Involved in broad range of activities; greatest dependence of all clusters on child benefits Dependent on destitute relief, orphan relief, pensions, and drought relief Livestock and arable cultivation specialization Employment, commercial business, livestock, and/or cultivation Dependent on destitute relief, orphan relief, pensions, and drought relief, as well as household level income strategies (e.g., alcohol brewing, baking) and laborer activities (e.g., herding/digging wells)
Social Identity Pastoralist
Employee (mainly working for government) Syndicate members Settlement leader
Hunter-gatherer Herder
Agro-pastoralist Employee
Agro-pastoralist Hunter
Destitute Labourer
Ethnic Identity Mixed (Bakgalagadi absent)
50% Batlharo
38% Bakgatla
12% Other
Mixed (Bakgalagadi absent)
73% Batlharo
7% Bakgatla
20% Other
Mixed (Bakgalagadi present)
77% Batlharo
9% Bakgatla
9% Bakgalagadi
5% Mix
100% Bakalanga
Mixed (minority groups absent)
40% Bakalanga
20% Bakurutse
20% Basarwa
20% Bateti and Bakgalagadi
Mixed (includes a high proportion of Basarwa and all minority groups)
37% Bakalanga
33% Basarwa
15% Bateti
7% minority groups (Banajwa and Bakwena)
Average household size (average number of adults absent from settlement in 2004/5)
10.5 (1.4)

10.5 (1.4)

9.1 (1.5)

6.3 (1.7)


6.2 (0.9)