Fig. 7. The panarchy metaphor illustrates system dynamics and cross-scale interactions in the Upper Baiwu watershed over time. The illustration shows one scale above (national) and below (family or collective) the system of interest. Cycle I exhibits loose connections with national socioeconomic policy. Community traditions set norms based on strong feedbacks between local family and watershed system scales. Cycle II depicts the system after the National Democratic Reforms in 1957 and continuing to the present day. Strong national controls dictate local resource use, leading to a scale mismatch and diminished feedbacks between lower scales. After 1957, the collective replaces the family as the smallest scale within the interaction hierarchy. Cycle III begins in 2008 with the new forest use policy. The desirable scenario is characterized by greater feedbacks among all three scales of organization. National forest policies are decentralized to reflect the information and needs transmitted from lower scales. Strengthened local institutions and cooperative relationships between the state and local communities could enable communities to respond directly to changes in the watershed through the development of a monitoring system for adaptive and sustainable forest management.

Fig. 7