Table 1. Comparative co-engineering process characteristics.

Characteristic Australian process Bulgarian process
Process type

Management-driven, supported by research

Research-driven to support management

Principle shared objective

Create a regional estuary management plan

Test a multi-level participatory modeling process for joint flood and drought risk management

Principle co-engineering institutions

Local government water managers; university researchers; private environmental engineering consultants

University researchers; government institute researchers; private research consultants; stakeholder group

Participatory process stakeholder and administrative level inclusion

State government departmental representatives; local government councilors; managers, planners, and scientists; national environmental NGO; Catchment Management Authority representative; regional associations, industries and commerce; regional water-agency managers; local residents

National Ministers and departmental representatives; national NGOs, association representatives and water experts; Water Basin Directorate representatives; regional mayors; regional water-agency manager; municipal representatives; local residents

Participatory process (and average number of participants at each workshop)

Three workshops over 4 months with 38 participants (average of 22 per workshop)

Two sets of interviews and 15 workshops over 1 yr with approximately 135 participants (first 13 workshops: average 8; last two workshops: average 26)