Table 2. Description of the land use types within the five implementation categories defined in Fig. 7, and proposed actions and instruments to achieve conservation outcomes in each of these categories.

Implementation category
  Description Proposed actions and instruments Implementing agencies
1 Land is of high biodiversity and low farming value, and should be secured for formal conservation, e.g., type 1 or 2 protected areas. Restoration may be required. •  Purchase for conservation (area is only 623 km² – or 2.1% of planning domain) •  Statutory conservation agencies
2 Land is of high biodiversity and high farming value. Many farms are adjacent to rivers and use these for irrigation. This land use is difficult to change, but those parts of the farm far away from the rivers often contain untransformed areas. Preliminary discussions indicate a high willingness among farmers to have this untransformed land managed by conservation agencies, for example, alien plant removal. •  Biodiversity agreements such as CapeNature’s Stewardship Programme
•  Management plans drawn up by agricultural extension officers
•  Environmental branding of farming products, e.g., wines
•  Reduction of biodiversity losses on cultivated land where possible, e.g., vegetation plots for “critical” vegetation types
•  Local conservation agency
•  National Department of Agriculture
•  Land owners
3 Land is of lower biodiversity and low farming value. Most of the planning domain is grazed and falls into this category. Actions must be diverse and can include a mixture of land use changes, protection, or biodiversity agreements. Opportunity costs for farmers will be low, and alternative land use practices, e.g., game farming instead of small stock grazing, may be financially beneficial. •  Conservancy formation in megaconservancy networks (Knight and Cowling 2003)
•  Biodiversity agreements
•  Community projects, especially for poorer areas
•  Local conservation agency
•  National Department of Agriculture
•  National Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
•  Land owners
•  Other national institution
4 Land is of lower biodiversity and high farming value. •  Proceed as for Category 2 above, but as a lower priority with respect to both timing and effort.
5 Identify any biodiversity patterns or processes of concern, and ensure these are dealt with by projects. •  Projects, e.g., alien eradication, reduction of pollutants into rivers •  Gouritz Initiative