Table 1. Comparison of governance heuristics before and after CALFED.


Gridlock and litigation-driven process

Collaborative process

Project-by-project decisions

Comprehensive framework with linkages
and balancing requirements

Single agency, single-purpose projects

Multiple purpose, interagency projects

Centralized decision making

Emphasis on local and regional solutions

Limited public involvement

Extensive public involvement and leadership

Internal agency science; no peer review

Independent science reviews

Limited or no accountability or transparency

Public governing body and planning and
tracking systems

Mechanistic decision making based upon
assumptions and mandates

Flexible, adaptive management and learning