Table 1. Process criteria for evaluating collaboration and social learning.

A. Process criteria for collaboration (Innes and Booher 1999) B. Process criteria for social learning (adapted from Keen et al. 2005, O'Donaghue 2007, Wals 2007)
All relevant interests are included in the process

The process is driven by shared concerns and a purpose that is of real concern to the group

The process should be self-organizing, and allow participants to identify the ground rules, objectives, tasks, and topics of concern

Participants should be engaged and interested in the process, taking part in in-depth discussions and informal interactions

The process should challenge the status quo and encourage creative thinking about problems and their solutions

Accurate and meaningful information should be available, and its meaning should be agreed upon by all actors
Situating and engaging: Key actors are identified and issues of concern or problems to be solved are identified with these actors in a way that is sensitive to the local context and their past experiences
Awareness raising, enquiry, and deconstruction: recognizing different worldviews and understandings of a problem, and being aware of one’s own frames of reference in relation to a problem. Clarifying and challenging one’s own and other’s frames of reference
Cocreating: developing shared frames of reference for understanding the problem based on exposure to alternative worldviews, and visioning about ‘what could be’
Practical action and experimentation: translating ideas that emerge from the previous steps into collaborative actions based on the cocreated frames of reference, and testing the applicability of these to meet the challenges identified
Reflection: assessing the degree to which issues of concern and challenges have been addressed, and also the ways in which frames of reference have been changed as a result of experience