‡Many public sector PES programs promote more than one of the major ecosystem service categories in rural landscapes, making it difficult to segment these payments into individual ecosystem service categories. Such “bundling” or multi-functionality characterizes public-sector PES programs in the European Union, United States, China, Costa Rica, and other countries. We place these multi-objective payments in the category for which they are targeted most specifically, according to the program’s enabling legislation, stated goals, or actual implementation.
¦This number includes habitat banking under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. However, wetland and stream mitigation banking pursuant to Section 404 of the U.S. Clean Water Act are classified under watershed protection because the principal regulatory basis for these markets is the protection and regulation of water quantity and quality.
¶These numbers refer to the total size of the global market for eco-certified forest and agricultural products. Some unspecified fraction of this total amount can be considered the premium paid by consumers for the eco-friendly means of production. Biodiversity conservation is the ecosystem service most strongly associated with consumer demand for eco-certified production, but such production can also support watershed protection and carbon sequestration.
#United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change projects registered under the Clean Development Mechanism: http://cdm.unfccc.int/Statistics/Registration/RegisteredProjByScopePieChart.html.
††The vast majority of this market volume is attributable to wetland and stream mitigation under Section 404 of the U.S. Clean Water Act. However, this figure includes only mitigation commitments satisfied by off-site banking and in-lieu payments. It excludes mitigation implemented by land developers themselves, which generally does not involve an ecosystem service payment or market transaction.