Table 1. Conceptual similarities and overlaps between the resilience framework and participatory action research/learning (AR/AL), implications for learning, and examples for climate change adaptation.

Resilience Framework Action Research/Learning (AR/AL) Implications for Learning Examples for Climate Change Adaptation
Complex adaptive cycles Loop learning and spirals of steps Iterative, cross-level/cross-scale information exchange Learning about and practicing adaptation as an action-reflection process
Windows of opportunities Nodes of reflection Opening for unexpected connections, innovation, and transformation Possibility for adjustment in agriculture or diversification out of agriculture
Memory Experiential grounding Knowledge base for envisioning the future Lessons learned from past droughts and floods to facilitate foresight
Re-organization Insightful questioning for action Challenging assumptions and worldviews Understanding of local and global drivers of climatic changes
Experimentation Testing theories through action/practice Flexible, incremental learning-by-doing, learning from mistakes Local monitoring of climate and other changes and testing adaptation options
Back-loop learning Co-production of knowledge and multiple voices Arena for creative knowledge generation Local and scientific climate knowledge and re-abstraction of external information
Self-organization Spontaneous cooperation and bounded instability Participant-led problem solving and action Agricultural innovation through farmer–extension agent collaboration
Revolting Challenging of power imbalances Empowerment, new dynamics across scales Shift from vulnerable people as passive victims of climate change to active agents who shape change
Small disturbances and surprises Management probes Out-of-the box thinking, innovative learning Introduction of extreme climate events into scenario building to explore adaptation options exceeding current response repertoire
Navigating transitions Rehearsing for reality Learning spaces for transformation Several alternative plans for managing climate uncertainties