Table 1. Different participation modes in research and innovation processes (adapted from Probst and Hagmann 2003).

Participation mode Characteristics in terms of actor involvement and control over the process
Contractual One actor has sole decision-making power over most of the decisions taken in the process, and can be considered the “owner” of this process. Other actors participate in activities defined by this “owner” by being (formally or informally) “contracted” to provide services and support.
Consultative Most of the key decisions are kept with one actor, but emphasis is put on consultation and gathering information from other actors, especially for identifying constraints and opportunities, priority setting, and/or evaluation.
Collaborative Different actors collaborate and are put on an equal footing, emphasizing links through an exchange of knowledge, different contributions, and a sharing of decision-making power during the process.
Collegiate Different actors work together as colleagues or partners. “Ownership” and responsibility are equally distributed among the partners, and decisions are made by agreement or consensus among all actors.