Table 1. Summary of the four case studies.

Characteristic Machubeni Mkhuze Nqabara Riemvasmaak
Province Eastern Cape Kwa Zulu Natal Eastern Cape Northern Cape
Land tenure Communal Communal Communal Communal
Population 7344 360,000 3369 780
Land area affected (ha) 16,150 8500 1500 75,000
Land use Crop cultivation, livestock farming, brick making, grass harvesting Conservation Crop cultivation, livestock farming, harvesting of forest products Limited livestock farming, tourism
Timeframe of intervention March 2005 to
September 2007
April 2005 to
February 2008
February 2005 to
March 2008
April 2005 to
January 2008
Objectives of intervention - Design a model for integrated catchment and natural resources management by communities;
- Reverse the process of land degradation;
- Create income from catchment management;
- Reinstate community access to high-quality drinking and irrigation water;
- Improve agricultural production systems
- Create an economic partnership among communities, traditional leadership structures, private land owners, and nongovernmental organizations;
- Establish economic incentives for sustainable resource use;
- Develop the active and effective involvement of supporting institutions
- Support the establishment of a community conservancy through the rehabilitation and restoration of the natural landscape;
- Upgrade and construct facilities for the conservancy;
- Incorporate a craft production centre, office, and meeting venue and workplace;
- Identify, rehabilitate, and prepare a site for lodge development
- Create a community conservancy on land formerly owned by the National Parks Board;
- Develop conservation and tourism services capacity;
- Create jobs in the conservation and tourism sectors;
- Involve communities in combating desertification and managing land