Fig. 1. A panarchy. Three selected levels of a panarchy are illustrated, to emphasize the two connections that are critical in creating and sustaining adaptive capability. One is the “revolt” connection, which can cause a critical change in one cycle to cascade up to a vulnerable stage in a larger and slower one. The other is the “remember” connection, which facilitates renewal by drawing on the potential that has been accumulated and stored in a larger, slower cycle. The number of levels in a panarchy varies, is usually rather small, and corresponds to levels of scale present in a system. (Excerpted from L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling, editors. Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Copyright 2001 by Island Press.)