Table 2. Shared and unique collaborative prescriptions.

Field Origin Collaborative Prescriptions
Collaborative prescriptions from communicative planning
  • Beyond facilitating mutual understanding, forge new understandings of self
  • Beyond promoting knowledge transfer, foster the development of new knowledge practices
  • Beyond catalyzing “double-loop” learning of political relations, and institutional arrangements, provide the capacity to reconfigure these relationships and foster collaborative governance
Collaborative prescriptions common to both fields
  • Abide by norms of transparency and inclusiveness
  • Enhance trust, commitment, and mutual understanding
  • Encourage creativity and experimentation, drawing on available resources and ideas
  • Facilitate expression of multiple perspectives on preferred future states and fruitful discussion across differences
  • Enable joint fact-finding procedures that would permit consideration of alternative ways of knowing about the system of concern
  • Enhance capacity, willingness, and initiative to act
Collaborative prescriptions from social–ecological resilience
  • Assist participants at different levels of expertise to make sense of complex entities and interactions
  • Enable specification of the attributes of the system of concern and identification of system dynamics
  • Facilitate discussion about norms and preferences in the selection of which future resilient state is preferred
  • Bridge social and ecological connections across spatial, temporal, and organizational scales
  • Provide guidance to remain integrated with other efforts to enhance resilience while avoiding rigid procedures that constrain interaction