Table 3. Factors used for clustering management practices.

Factors Indicators Indicator types Remarks
Forest tenure Resource access Category 1- Open access, 2- Collective access, 3- Individual/Private access
Boundary conflicts Category 1. intro–inter village boundaries are clear; 2. inter-village boundaries are clear, whereas intro-village boundaries are not; 3.Both boundaries are vague

Institution and management

Existence of regulations Binary 0, no; 1 yes
Existence of monitoring committee Binary 0, no; 1 yes
Implementation status Category 1- Restricted monitoring and implementation, 2- Moderate monitoring and implementation, 3- Poor/no monitoring and implementation
Equity in resource accessibility Category 1- Equal opportunities for everyone, 2- Equal opportunities for most of the population, 3- Exclusive opportunities for designated population
Resource-use pattern Category 1- Individual competition, 2- Cooperative harvesting, 3- Contracted harvesting
Benefit sharing Binary 0- No benefit-sharing mechanism, 1- Benefit-sharing mechanism

Natural setting
Complexity of terrain Category 1- Low spatial variation in terrain, 2- Moderate spatial variation in terrain, 3- High spatial variation in terrain
Percentage of forest cover Ratio/Numeric Data estimated by local village head and visually verified through satellite imagery

Matsutake production

Matsutake habitat area (rectified) Numeric If several villages shared the same harvesting area, the habitat area was rectified by dividing the total harvesting area by the no. of villages
Matsutake habitat area/person Numeric
Total production of Matsutake (rectified) Numeric Similar to indicator 11, total production was estimated at the market, the production of the village investigated was rectified by dividing the total production estimated at the market by the no. of villages
Matsutake production/habitat area Numeric
Harvesting production/capita Numeric


Contribution of matsutake to cash income Numeric Percentage of household income
Average cash income per capita Numeric
Average agricultural landholding per capita Numeric

Labor input
Length of matustake harvesting season Numeric Total harvesting days
Average travel time per harvesting trip Numeric Hours
Income Average cash income per year per capita from matsutake Numeric Yuan


Nearest market category Category 1- County market, 2- Village market, 3- Floating market
Degree to which information on pricing is accessible Category 1- Well known (through mobile, transparent market), 2- Moderately known, 3- Poorly known
Choice of and chance for selling Category 1- Good (with more than five competitive buyers); 2- Moderate (with three to five buyers), 3- Poor (one or two buyers)
Harvesting behavior No harvesting of <4–5 cm Category 1- Restrictions implemented, 2- Moderately implemented, 3- Poorly implemented,
Habitat management Category 1- Good management (with site preparation, e.g., thinning, watering,), 2- Moderate management, 3- Poor management