Table 2. Basic information about the study sites.

Village Name Prefecture County No. of households Ethnic groups Occupations Elevational range Main vegetation types Main management strategies
A’dong Diqing Deqin 405 Tibetan Agro-pastoralism 3000–4200 Oak and pine Rest day
Yeri 15 3100–4200 Oak and pine Co-management with The Nature Reserve
Jidi Shangri-La 24 3200–4200 Pine and oak Rotational harvesting
Zhiti 25 3200–3700 Pine No regulations
Kangsi 54 3300–4200 Pine No regulations
Lizui Lijiang Yulong 344 Naxi Agriculture 2400–4000 Pine Centralized harvesting, marketing, and distribution of benefits
Kaimen Chuxiong Nanhua 359 Han, Yi Agriculture 2400–2500 Pine Contracted harvesting rights
Haitang Baoshan Baoshan 45 Han Agriculture 2300–2600 Pine Household-owned forest management

Note: denotes data at the administrative village level, the other household numbers are at the natural village level. (In China, several natural villages constitute an administrative village.)