Table 1. Analytical framework of exogenous variables influencing the process of adaptive co-management.

Exogenous Variables Key References
Ecosystem changes or resource alterations that precipitate crisis. The crisis may be real or of perceived importance to the actors involved. Pinkerton 1989, Selin and Chavez 1995, Olsson et al. 2004b, McConney et al. 2007, Armitage et al. 2009
Legal mandates, policy prescriptions, and/or resources support (or reductions) by government. Pinkerton 1989, Plummer and FitzGibbon 2004a, Olsson et al. 2004b, Berkes 2007, Fresque 2008, Armitage et al. 2009
Social and political context in which adaptive co-management is embedded. Variables emerging with specific influence include:
  Culture Berkes and Folke 1998, Folke et al. 2003, Kristofferson and Berkes 2005, Natcher et al. 2005, Doubleday 2007
  Knowledge systems Olsson et al. 2004b, Kristofferson and Berkes 2005, Armitage 2007, Berkes 2009
  Power Armitage 2007, Doubleday 2007, Nadasdy 2003, 2007, Fennell et al. 2008, Armitage et al. 2009
“Meso-scale” social and economic drivers that propel other exogenous variables as well as endogenous variables. Examples include population, international trade, and globalization. Folke et al. 2003, Armitage and Johnson 2006, Armitage 2008