Table 2. Direct effects of projected global climate change factors on processes and physical properties of coastal lagoons.

Climate change factor
Processes and physical properties Sea level Air and open ocean temperatures Precipitation Storms
Barrier-lagoon migration Erosion and shoreward migration of barrier islands1,2,3 Rapid sediment redistribution4,5,6
Flushing rate Increased flushing due to barrier breaching7,8 Variability in freshwater input increases variability in flushing9,10 Increased flushing due to barrier breaching6,11,12
Sedimentation Sediment flux inversely related to precipitation15,17,18 Increased sediment transport4,15
Physical properties
Lagoon water temperature Temperature increase amplified in shallow systems13,14
Salinity Change in salinity through inundation7,15,16 Salinity inversely related to freshwater input11,17,18 Higher salinity due to increased breaching and wash-over events6,15,19
Nutrients Higher nutrient input through overall increased terrestrial runoff20,21
Light penetration Increased suspended solids during freshwater runoff events18,22
Oxygen Decreased oxygen solubility with increased temperature23,24 Lower dissolved oxygen with increased stratification18,20

1: Brunn 1962, 2: Titus 1990, 3: Pilkey and Cooper 2004, 4: Boothroyd et al. 1985, 5: Fenster and Dolan 1993, 6: Morton and Sallenger 2003, 7: Bird 1993, 8: Oliveira et al. 2006, 9: Paerl et al. 2006, 10: Trenberth et al. 2007, 11: Kjerfve and Magill 1989, 12: Fritz et al. 2007, 13: Harley et al. 2006, 14: Nixon et al. 2004, 15: Scavia et al. 2002, 16: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007, 17: Michener et al. 1997, 18: Najjar et al. 2000, 19: Chabreck and Palmisano 1973, 20: Justic et al. 1996, 21: Rogers and McCarty 2000, 22: Steward et al. 2006, 23: Pilson 1998, 24: Bopp et al. 2002.