Fig. 6. Effects of an invading species (S21 = orange) on the CLS of the 20-species system. (A) Temporal dynamics of three of the 20 species (S9, S14, S20) and the invader (S21). Up to generation 2000, all 20 species coexist and community structure is approximately constant because “open” recruitment enables recruits of all species to establish (with equal likelihood) on small patches on the landscape cleared by a low level of disturbance (see Methods). At generation 2001, the invader is introduced, which is able to overgrow three of the more abundant species, but interactions with all other species are standoffs. The invader attains an equilibrium of ca. 45% cover. (B) and (C) are examples of the landscape at approximately constant community compositions at 2000 and 7000 generations, respectively. Prediction-r2 spectra are shown for analyses based on series of five maps, each 10 time steps apart, finishing at generation 2000 and 7000 (termed the “2000 series”and “7000 series,” respectively). Analyses based on densities of S9 indicate a reduction in the CLS from about 50 to about 30 length units after the invasion (D and E, respectively), but the CLS indicated from analysis of densities of species S14 (F and G), and S20 (H and I) show little change. The CLS indicated from analysis of densities of the invader at around 7000 generations is much larger at about 115 length units (I). Areas identifying the CLS are shown as black horizontal bars.