Table 2. Soil management options, their characteristics and uses

Soil management options Short description
Crop Rotation Production system where different crops are grown in sequence to avoid continuous cultivation of the same crop, on the same land, year after year
Incorporation of crop residue Process of adding crop residues to the soil, either through ploughing in, or by mulching and allowing macro-fauna to incorporate residues with time
Animal manure Collection, management, and use of animal manure for increasing nutrient and organic matter additions to the soil
Agroforestry trees Planting of tree species either as a rotation, a fallow, or on field/farm boundaries
Resting land fallow Removal of land from crop production for a number of seasons to allow the soil fertility to replenish
Soil erosion control Process of active control of water movement across the soil surface, either by terracing, using trash lines, or fanya juu, fanya chini
Early ploughing Early land preparation to allow more timely seed sowing and for improved weed control
Cover crops Use of certain species, mostly nitrogen fixing, as a sole or relay crop, to provide ground cover during the dry season, provide biomass of soil fertility improvement, conserve soil moisture, and provide dry season livestock feed
Botanicals for pest and disease management Use of local species like Tithonia, chili, marigold to prepare a water-based pesticide