Table 1. List of the mitigation methods from the Diffuse Pollution User Manual.

Category Mitigation method
Land use and soil management Convert arable land to extensive grassland
Establish cover crops in the autumn
Cultivate land for crop establishment in spring rather than autumn
Adopt minimal cultivation systems
Cultivate compacted tillage soils
Cultivate and drill across the slope
Leave autumn seedbeds rough
Avoid tramlines over winter
Establish in-field grass buffer strips
Loosen compacted soil layers in grassland fields
Maintain and enhance soil organic matter levels
Allow field drainage systems to deteriorate
Livestock management Reduce overall stocking rates on livestock farms
Reduce the length of the grazing day or grazing season
Reduce field stocking rates when soils are wet
Move feed and water troughs at regular intervals
Reduce dietary N and P intakes
Adopt phase feeding of livestock
Fertilizer management Use a fertilizer recommendation system
Integrate fertilizer and manure nutrient supply
Reduce fertilizer application rates
Do not apply P fertilizers to high P index soils
Do not apply fertilizer to high-risk areas
Avoid spreading fertilizer to fields at high-risk times
Manure management Increase the capacity of farm manure (slurry) stores
Minimize the volume of dirty water produced
Adopt batch storage of slurry
Adopt batch storage of solid manure
Compost solid manure
Change from slurry to a solid manure handling system
Site solid manure heaps away from watercourses and field drains
Site solid manure heaps on concrete and collect the effluent
Do not apply manure to high-risk areas
Do not spread farmyard manure to fields at high-risk times
Do not spread slurry or poultry manure to fields at high-risk times
Incorporate manure into the soil
Transport manure to neighboring farms
Incinerate poultry litter
Farm infrastructure Fence off rivers and streams from livestock
Construct bridges for livestock crossing rivers and streams
Re-site gateways away from high-risk areas
Establish new hedges
Establish riparian buffer strips
Establish and maintain artificial (constructed) wetlands