Fig. 1. Global and national policies structure the space within which local responses can be generated. Local “innovations” or responses depend largely on available local resources, but are constrained or enabled by policies and regulations at higher levels. Alleviating constraints at only the national or local level may have no beneficial effect if constraints at the regional or international level are not addressed. The feedback or influence from the local level to higher levels is often very weak, whereas influences from national to regional and global levels are often stronger. A key aim of analysis is to identify enabling policies that can create a greater space for local innovative responses, and strengthen local communities’ influence at higher scales.