Table 6. Existing measures for coping with floods and droughts in six of the seven basins studied. The Nile, which runs through 10 countries, was not included because of insufficient data.

Table 6A. Flood control measures.
River basin
Structural measures
Nonstructural measures
Social measures
Amudarya Two major reservoirs
Overflow structures
Water storage in wetlands and polders
Use of former lakes, depressions, and bays of Aral Sea for water storage Bilateral Turkministan and Uzbekistan flood emergency committee in the delta region
Elbe Water storage reservoirs
River basin planning now includes measures to increase natural water retention areas and keep construction out of floodplains
Flood alarm and warning systems
Flood preparedness by distribution of information and education
Guadiana Water storage reservoirs
Emergency channels
Soil conservation and afforestation measures
Drainage networks along streets and roads
Public information and education
Orange Several very large dams designed partly for water security Poorly developed because there are few floodplains, however, Johannesburg with its largely informal shanty towns presents a perennial flooding problem Ongoing and largely unsuccessful attempts to prevent settlement in floodplains, mainly in Johannesburg
Rhine Reinforcement of dikes
Retention polders
Lowering of floodplains
Reactivation of old river branches
Land-use planning Flood action plan: raising awareness by flood risk maps and other publicity measures
Tisza Dams
Six emergency reservoirs/polders under construction along the upper and middle Tisza sections
Flood/riverbed cleaning for conveying flow capacity
Integrated land-use planning in the floodplains according to the new  “Vásárhelyi Plan”
Reforestation programs in Zacarpathian part started
Flood vulnerability and risk surveys
National program of payment after floods
Coupled education–insurance programs under discussion 
Table 6B. Drought control measures.
River basin
Supply-side measures
Demand-side measures
Amudarya Water storage in single-year reservoirs and lakes in delta region
Water allocation planning
Attempts to implement technical, economic, and legal water saving measures
Increase in water use efficiency
Awareness raising
Elbe Water storage reservoirs Water-saving technologies
Water price mechanisms
Optimization of water resources use
Guadiana Surface and groundwater reservoirs Water pricing
Legal measures
Water-efficient crops
Orange Dam infrastructure, including several large interbasin transfer schemes Plans for demand management in South Africa
Rhine Large artificial basins
Redistribution between Rhine branches
using weirs in the Netherlands
Raising awareness
Price mechanisms
Tisza Six emergency reservoirs under
No specific measures exist