Table 1. Major flood protection measures.

Structural measures Nonstructural measures
  Measures in watersheds Social measures
Dams Increase natural water retention and water storage in watersheds by extending floodplains and creating wetlands and polders Flood mitigation systems including forecasting, warning, evacuation, and postflood recovery
Levees Enhance infiltration and retardation of water by reducing impermeable areas, building groundwater cisterns, etc. Land-use planning
Water storage reservoirs for flood control Agriculture practices reducing runoff, e.g., catch crops, no black fallow in set-aside areas Local and transboundary emergency committees
Off-stream polders or flood retardation ponds Zoning to delineate floodplain, in which only low-value infrastructure is allowed Household mitigation and preparedness actions
Dikes Appropriate construction methods in flood-prone areas Capacity building to improve flood awareness, understanding, and preparedness
River embankments and floodwalls   Risk spreading through flood insurance