Table 1. Descriptions of the land-cover classes used for satellite image classification.

Land-cover class Definition
Water† Lakes, lagoons, dams, or large rivers
Forest Natural forest, including old-growth forest, secondary forest, and riparian forest; protected areas were included in this land-cover class
Plantation Monospecific stands of Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria that are used for lumber and pulp production
Cleared† Bare ground; usually associated with agriculture, plantations, and/or mixed agriculture
Agriculture Areas dominated by perennial crops of tea and yerba mate
Mixed use Areas of subsistence agriculture often mixed with small pastures and shrubland
Pasture Grassland that was established over the last 100 years in what was forested habitat; these areas are usually dominated by African grasses.
Campos Native grassland or areas that were converted to grassland > 100 yr ago; these areas are dominated by native grass species and occur mainly in the southern part of the province
Urban Cities, roads, and other built-up areas
Unclassified Pixels that could not be confidently assigned to a land-cover class

†These classes are considered as “other” in most of the analyses, figures, and tables.