Table 1. Comparison of IWRM and AM approaches to water resource management

Addresses problems that ... Is a ... Involves ... Is achieved by ... Generates ... Good examples are characterized by ...
IWRM ... are seen to be the fault of fractured planning and a lack of appreciation for the connectivity of processes .... call for joint governance ... multiple organizations and stakeholders operating across sectors and scales ... reform of the existing governance system (planning, management, and communication processes) ... coordinated and integrated sets of resource management plans and actions ... strong political commitment to reform and to inter-organizational, cross-sectoral management
AM ... “Big Science” and “Command and Control” approaches have failed to effectively solve, and that determinism does not adequately describe .. theory about effective management of natural resources, and a process for organizational learning ... responsible authorities with support from different stakeholders ... engaging in a program of active learning about natural resource dynamics and use ... a style of management that emphasizes exploration and learning ... a combination of hypothesis formulation, action, and analytical reflection on the outcomes of management with the emphasis on learning