Table 1. Important historical events related to mangrove community forest establishment at two sites in Trang, southern Thailand.

Year   Tong Tasae Laem Makham
1941   Outside businessmen started mangrove concessions for charcoal production.
1943   Outside businessmen started mangrove concessions for charcoal production.
1982   The degradation of mangrove was apparent in the village.
Informal discussions between the leader and active villagers often included issues related to mangrove degradation caused by illegal cutting.
1984   Informal committee was established. They initiated monitoring of illegal practices by charcoal concessionaires and reported the situation to foresters.
1985   A local NGO, the Yadfon Association (YFA), started working in the community. The YFA supported leaders and active group members by facilitating training, field visits, and dialogue with academics. The aim of these activities was to empower local people to develop community-based mangrove management in their community.
1988   Conflict increased between community members and charcoal concessionaires because of illegal practices in the village forest. The informal conservation group made futile attempts to negotiate with the charcoal plant, and reported the occurrence to government agencies.
An active leader was assassinated for informing officials of illegal mangrove cutting.
1989   The village leaders, group members, and the YFA begin to develop a network of conservation groups in this region and encouraged concerned officials to work together with local people.
With the assistance of the YFA, the governor, foresters, and neighboring villagers, local villagers established a community forest to conserve mangrove forest with a limited level of use.
1991   Mangrove degradation became evident, leading to informal discussions among members of the community. It was concluded that illegal mangrove cutting was the most important cause of the degradation.
1992   Leaders and active community members started campaigning to protect the mangrove forest.
The community marked the village mangrove forest with boundary signs.
The aim of the activities was to protect the forest from illegal cutting caused by charcoal concessionaires. However, villagers did not receive any support from local foresters, who believed that the mangroves should be centrally managed by the state.
1993 The leader and active community members persuaded community members to join in a mangrove plantation project surrounding village.
1994   The mangrove community forest was enlarged to 80 ha and divided into three parts: a conservation zone, a utilization zone, and a medical zone. The village has been maintaining the mangrove community forest through to the present day.
1995   A local NGO, the Yadfon Association (YFA), started working in the village. The YFA supported leaders and their staff by facilitating training, field visits, and dialogue with concerned government agencies.
1997   The leader proposed a community forest project to the regional forestry office. Meetings among villagers, foresters, academics, and NGOs resulted in the establishment of a 320-ha mangrove community forest. Tong Tasae Community forest has been maintained without legally enshrined rights