Table 2. Types and patterns of C. strictum resin harvest in indigenous villages of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

State Village Name of Indigenous Group(s) Harvest Method Tenure system observed for C. strictum Rate of harvest2 Season for harvest Starting tree size for harvest (GBH) Yield of resin per tree tapped Grade of resin harvested (Y = yes)
1 2 3
Kerala Maancheery Cholanaikan Fire & incisions; wait 2 wk N 3 d/wk, 10x/yr Not during monsoon 50 cm 0.5 kg/tree (until 5 yrs ago) Y Y
Kerala Alakal Cholanaikan Fire & incisions; wait 3 mos Y 15 kg/day (2–3x per monsoon) Monsoon only 50 cm 5 kg/tree Y
Kerala Appankaapu Kaatunaikan Fire & incisions wait 1 yr Y 2x per monsoon Monsoon; set during honey hunting 50 cm 1–5 kg/tree. Up to 10 Y Y
Kerala Thandankallu Paniyas Fire & incisions N 2x per monsoon Monsoon 50 cm 1–5 kg/tree Y
Tamil Nadu Dhalamukh Irula/Kurumba Incisions only Y (village)1 2–3 kg/wk Year round 100 cm NA Y
Tamil Nadu Semenarai Irula/Kurumba Incisions only Y (Village) 3–4 kg/wk 1/mo 100 cm NA Y Y
Tamil Nadu Kavalkombei Kurumba Natural fissures Y (village) 5 kg/wk Year round 100 cm 1 kg Y Y
Tamil Nadu Marikode Kurumba Incisions and natural fissures Y (Village) 1.5 kg/wk; 5–6 kg/mo Jan–Apr 100 cm NA Y Y

1 Tenure is respected at the level of the villages, but not areas within villages (see text)
2 Units of measurement are not consistent across communities as some discussed harvest rates in terms of kg and other in terms of frequency.