Fig. 2. Multiple-level embedded systems that interact to influence a child’s life illustrating Bronfenbrenner’s (1979, 1986) concepts. The child as a living system is shown embedded in three microsystems, namely, family, peer group, and school. These microsystems are in turn embedded in a larger-scale systems, as shown for the school system, which is embedded in a town that is part of a larger macrosystem. Within the individual child, two inter-related internal systems are shown, i.e., the central nervous system and the immune system, each of which could be further differentiated at the cellular system level. Bronfenbrenner’s concept of the exosystem is illustrated by the parent work place, which influences the child indirectly through the parent. His concept of the mesosystem refers to interactions among the microsystems of the child, for example between parent and teacher or parent and peer.