Table 1.. Overview of indicators for SL applied during the analysis of German and French case studies. SL: Social Learning. SH: stakeholder; RBMP: river basin management planning; GO: government organization; NGO: non-governmental organization.

Aspect of SL What to check SL is supported by... SL is hindered by...
1) Governance Context of SL (indicator: availability of multi-party interaction among all actors) - existence of institutions for multi-party interactions - e.g., multi-SH forums (such as advisory boards, panels or pilot projects) that allow collaboration in different forms - no opportunity for interaction between interested parties.
2) Outcome (indicator: character of outcome and implementation of outcome) - formalized status of outcome
- actual uptake of SHs’ input and their confidence in it
- attitude of all actors: how do they consider the status of the outcome?
- jointly developed outcome that is considered by the responsible authorities - unclear status of outcome (binding/non-binding)
- very strong binding nature of outcome constrains the openness of discussion process
3) Social involvement—boundary management (indicator: process boundary) - actors’ position on role of process for their work
- existence of alternative processes
- continuity of participation in process
- involved actors’ support of the process
- identification of process as unique and necessary for RBMP in respective basins
- actors perceive that all relevant parties participate in the process
- open process with changing participants
- alternative and independent process (e.g., regional planning) with more importance for SHs
- Other actors identify SHs who should but do not participate
4) Content management (indicator: information flow) - confidence of SH in information flow
- direction of information flow: who provides the information?
- sufficient information flow on aims and objectives of process, including nature of outcome
- information flow between all actors, not only from GO to NGO
- lack of information on role of SH participation
- information overflow
5) Social involvement—ground rules (indicator: diversity of interaction) - availability of different forms of encounter (meetings, excursions, project working groups)
- forms of interaction: possibility for informal meetings (coffee breaks, dinners, excursions), e.g., presentations or room for open discussion during meetings
- different forms of interaction, e.g., roundtable meetings, informal dinners, excursions...
- Space for discussion in addition to provision of information; questions requiring clarification are answered; stereotypes/prejudices are openly discussed;
- lack of diversity of exchange, e.g., only meetings for one-way information flow