Fig. 4. Model-simulated temporal evolution of the spatial means (μV, μR) and standard deviations (σV, σR) of the fields of V and R using the same parameters as in Fig. 2a. The removal of shrub vegetation at time t' = 250 is followed by a period of resource depletion concurrent to the establishment, growth, and encroachment of new shrub seedlings, and by a period of resource accumulation due to autogenic mechanisms induced by shrub vegetation. At a steady state, both shrub biomass and resources attain asymptotic levels lower (by about 43% in the case of V) than those existing before time t' = 250, whereas the asymptotic values of the coefficients of variation, σV/V and σR/R, increase. Similar analyses (not shown) obtained with the same parameters as in Fig. 2c lead to even lower post-disturbance steady-state values of V.