Fig. 2. (A) Remnant habitat and total land-cover change (1976–2004) for eight groups that depend on habitat conversion as part of the production strategy. (B) Cumulative land-cover change according to production system and access to technology. Nonmechanized indigenous Andean colonists have been acquiring mechanized technology in selected colonization zones (see Table 3), and both cattle ranching groups establish pastures using a variety of technologies ranging from manual labor with chain saws to the use of bulldozers and chains. (C) Cumulative land-cover change over five temporal periods for both intensive and extensive cattle ranchers. Habitat conversion has increased over time while also expanding to include a broader range of vegetation types.