Table 1. Proportions of the participants who raised particular marine issues during semi-structured interviews in two First Nations’ territories (unprompted responses).


Gitga’at territory (n = 20) Huu-ay-aht territory (n = 19)
Type of issue Proportion Ongoing or potential/anticipated issues* Proportion Ongoing or potential/anticipated issues*
Population declines due to commercial fishing 80% Ongoing 68% Ongoing
Population declines due to recreational fishing 75% Ongoing 68% Ongoing
Population declines due to illegal fishing 45% Ongoing 5% Ongoing
Potential environmental damage of the proposed pipeline and associated oil tanker traffic (e.g., oil spills) 45% Anticipated N/A
Environmental degradation associated with tourism 30% Ongoing 37% Ongoing
Habitat damage caused by logging and its effects in the ocean 25% Ongoing 11% Ongoing
Population declines due to bycatch, and wastefulness of bycatch regulations 20% Ongoing 0%
Environmental degradation due to finfish farming 20% Anticipated 16% Ongoing
Unpredictable changes due to climate change 20% Ongoing 5% Ongoing
Mismanagement of fisheries 20% Ongoing 32% Ongoing
Uncertainty in seismic testing on marine life 20% Anticipated N/A
Environmental degradation due to oil and gas exploration 15% Anticipated 0%
Habitat damage due to anchoring 5% Ongoing 0%
Commercialization of seaweed 5% Anticipated 0%
Population declines due to First Nations fishing 5% Ongoing 16% Ongoing
Environmental impacts of pollution 5% Ongoing 16% Ongoing
Invertebrate declines due to increasing abundance of sea otters 0% 26% Anticipated
Fish population declines due to increases in seals and sea lion 0% 21% Ongoing
Habitat damage due to trawling 0% 16% Ongoing
Changes in foodweb interactions due to invasive species 0% 5% Ongoing
Genetic contamination due to hatcheries 0% 5% Ongoing
* Ongoing refers to issues that are currently taking place and are expected to continue into the future. Potential or anticipated refer to issues that are not yet occurring, but will potentially appear in the future.