Table 8. Ecosystem services, use, and decision criteria indicators identified from local knowledge (useful for beekeepers, fishers, and hunters).

Stakeholders (resources) Indicators of changing ecosystem services Use indicators Decision criteria indicators
- number of hives
- size of swarms
- rainfall
- speed/ time it takes for the bees to fill the hives with honey
- change in the number
of modern hives / traditional hives
- number of beekeepers
- number of hives observed on trees
- % of modern hives / traditional hives
- honey production
- number of associations of honey
- material available to process and package honey
- ease with which a hive can be colonized
- ease with which a hive can be constructed
- ease of honey collection
- cost of the hive
- desired quality of honey
- demand for honey
- price of honey
- availability of sites that meet requirements for installing a beehive
- change in price of fish
- water abundance
- rainfall
- number of fishers on the water
- changing embankment areas,
- scarcity of “flagship” species (sold and consumed)
- increase or decrease in amount of banned materials
- number of fishers
- number of catches
- species caught
- size of fish caught
- number of dugout canoes on the water
- number of nets in the water
- number of inventoried nets, hoop nets, dugout canoes
- number of fishers’ associations
- need of fish for food
- need of fish to pay taxes, pay for ceremonies
- lack of alternative resources
- seasons (low /high waters)
- species sought
- water currents
- available material
- water level
- park limits
- fines imposed by foresters
- prices offered by major traders
- price of fishing material
- regulations concerning net / mesh sizes
- regulations concerning protected species
- changing meat prices
- rainfall
- change in number of domestic animals, appearance of epizootic
diseases (especially for buffalo)
- easy observation of ‘flagship’ species (hartebeest, cheetah, sassaby, elephant...)
- animal calls, cries
- flight initiation distance
- quantity of traces / prints and recent droppings
- number of observed carcasses
- number of cartridges found
- number of observed hunting camps
- number of fines/tickets
- number of observed hunting systems
- respect for traditional hunting rules
- number of poachers observed
(by guides in particular) when moving from place to place
- need for food
- abundance of game outside the core area
- alternative resources
- limits of the core area
- eating habits
- orders from major traders
- traditional hunting rules
- price of meat
- habits
- available material
- fines (number and cost)